Materials vacuum deposition techniques table

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  • E-Beam Evaporation = PVD using electron beam to generate vapor
  • Thermal Evaporation = PVD using electric heater
  • PDC = Pulsed DC (Direct Current) sputtering
  • RF = RF(Radio Frequency) sputtering
  • RF-R = reactive RF (Radio Frequency) sputter
  • DC = DC (Direct Current)  sputtering
  • DC-R = reactive DC (Direct Current) sputtering

 

Material Symbol Density g/cm3 Melting Point (Cº) Sublimes / Decompose Acoustic Impedance Z Ratio Temp.(Cº) for 10-8 Torr Temp.(Cº) for 10-6 Torr Temp.(Cº) for 10-4 Torr E-Beam Performace E-Beam Liner Material Thermal Evap: Boat Thermal Evap. Coil Thermal Evap. Basket Thermal Evap. Crucible Sputter Comments
10-8 10-6 10-4 E-Beam Performance Liner Material Boat Coil Basket Crucible
Aluminum Al 2.7 660 - 1.08 677 821 1010 Excellent Fabmate®, Intermetallic - - W TiB2-BN, BN DC Alloys W/Mo/Ta. Flash evap or use BN crucible.
Aluminum Antimonide AlSb 4.3 1080 - - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Aluminum Arsenide AlAs 3.7 1600 - - - - ≈1300 - - - - - - RF -
Aluminum Bromide AlBr3 2.64 97 - - - - ≈50 - - Mo - - Gr - -
Aluminum Carbide Al4C3 2.36 ≈1400 D - - - ≈800 Fair - - - - - RF -
Aluminum Fluoride AlF3 2.88 1291 S - 410 490 700 Poor Graphite, Fabmate® Mo, W, Ta - - Gr RF -
Aluminum Nitride AlN 3.26 >2200 S **1.00 - - ≈1750 Fair - - - - - RF-R Decomposes. Reactive evap in 10-3 T N2 with glow discharge.
Aluminum Oxide Al2O3 3.97 2072 - 0.336 - - 1550 Excellent Fabmate®, Tungsten W - W - RF-R Sapphire excellent in E-beam; forms smooth, hard films.
Aluminum Phosphide AlP 2.42 2 - - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Aluminum, 1% Copper Al/Cu 99/1 wt% 2.82 640 - **1.00 - - - - - - - - - DC Wire feed & flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Aluminum, 1% Silicon Al/Si 99/1 wt % 2.69 640 - **1.00 - - 1010 - - - - - TiB2-BN RF, DC Wire feed & flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Antimony Sb 6.68 630 S 0.768 279 345 425 Poor - Mo*** Ta*** Mo, Ta Mo, Ta BN, C, Al2O3 RF, DC Evaporates well.
Antimony Oxide Sb2O3 5.2 656 S - - - ≈300 Good - - - - BN, Al2O3 RF-R Decomposes on W.
Antimony Selenide Sb2Se3 - 611 - - - - - - - Ta - - C RF Stoichiometry variable.
Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3 4.64 550 - - - - ≈200 Good Molybdenum, Tantalum Mo, Ta - Mo, Ta Al2O3 - No decomposition.
Antimony Telluride Sb2Te3 6.5 629 - **1.00 - - 600 - - - - - C RF Decomposes over 750°C.
Arsenic As 5.73 817 S - 107 150 210 Poor Fabmate® C - - Al2O3 - Sublimes rapidly at low temp.
Arsenic Oxide As2O3 3.74 312 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Arsenic Selenide As2Se3 4.75 ~360 - - - - - - - - - - Al2O3, Q RF -
Arsenic Sulfide As2S3 3.43 300 - - - - ≈400 Fair - Mo - - Al2O3, Q RF -
Arsenic Telluride As2Te3 6.5 362 - - - - - - - Flash - - - - See JVST. 1973, 10:748
Barium Ba 3.51 725 - 2.1 545 627 735 Fair - W, Ta, Mo W W Metals RF Wets without alloying, reacts with ceramics.
Barium Chloride BaCl2 3.92 963 - - - - ≈650 - - Ta, Mo - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Barium Fluoride BaF2 4.89 0,355 S 0.793 - - ≈700 Good Molybdenum Mo - - - RF -
Barium Oxide BaO 5.72 1918 - - - - ≈1300 Poor - - - - Al2O3 RF, RF-R Decomposes slightly.
Barium Sulfide BaS 4.25 1200 - - - - 1,1 - - Mo - - - RF -
Barium Titanate BaTiO3 6.02 1625 D 0.464 - - - - - - - - - RF Gives Ba. Co-evap and Sputter OK.
Beryllium Be 1.85 1278 - - 710 878 1 Excellent Graphite, Fabmate® W, Ta W W C DC Wets W/Mo/Ta. Evaporates easily
Beryllium Carbide Be2C 1.9 >2100 D - - - - - - - - - - - -
Beryllium Chloride BeCl2 1.9 405 - - - - ≈150 - - - - - - RF -
Beryllium Fluoride BeF2 1.99 800 S - - - ≈200 Good - - - - - - -
Beryllium Oxide BeO 3.01 2530 - - - - 1900 Good - - - W - RF, RF-R No decomposition from E-beam guns.
Bismuth Bi 9.8 271 - 0.79 330 410 520 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite W, Mo, Ta W W Al2O3 DC Resistivity high. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Bismuth Fluoride BiF3 5.32 727 S - - - ≈300 - - - - - Gr RF -
Bismuth Oxide Bi2O3 8.55 860 - **1.00 - - ≈1400 Poor - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Bismuth Selenide Bi2Se3 6.82 710 D **1.00 - - ≈650 Good - - - - Gr, Q RF Co-evap from 2 sources or sputter.
Bismuth Sulfide Bi2S3 7.39 685 D - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Bismuth Telluride Bi2Te3 7.7 573 - **1.00 - - ≈600 - - W, Mo - - Gr, Q RF Co-evap from 2 sources or sputter.
Bismuth Titanate Bi2Ti2O7 - 870 D - - - - - - - - - - RF Sputter or co-evap from 2 sources in 10-2 Torr O2.
Boron B 2.34 2079 - 0.389 1,278 1,548 1797 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite C - - C RF Explodes with rapid cooling. Forms carbide with container.
Boron Carbide B4C 2.52 2350 - **1.00 2,5 2,58 2650 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite - - - - RF Similar to chromium.
Boron Nitride BN 2.25 3000 S - - - 1600 Poor - - - - - RF, RF-R Decomposes when sputtered. Reactive preferred.
Boron Oxide B2O3 1.81 ≈450 - - - - ≈1400 Good Molybdenum Mo - - - - -
Boron Sulfide B2S3 1.55 310 - - - - 800 - - - - - Gr RF -
Cadmium Cd 8.64 321 - 0.682 64 120 180 Poor - W, Mo, Ta - W, Mo, Ta Al2O3, Q DC, RF Bad for vacuum systems. Low sticking coefficient.
Cadmium Antimonide Cd3Sb2 6.92 456 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Cadmium Arsenide Cd3As2 6.21 721 - - - - - - - - - - Q RF -
Cadmium Bromide CdBr2 5.19 567 - - - - ≈300 - - - - - - - -
Cadmium Chloride CdCl2 4.05 568 - - - - ≈400 - - - - - - - -
Cadmium Fluoride CdF2 6.64 1,1 - - - - ≈500 - - - - - - RF -
Cadmium Iodide CdI2 5.67 387 - - - - ≈250 - - - - - - - -
Cadmium Oxide CdO 6.95 >1500 D - - - ≈530 - - - - - - RF-R Disproportionates.
Cadmium Selenide CdSe 5.81 >1350 S **1.00 - - 540 Good Molybdenum, Tantalum Mo, Ta - - Al2O3, Q RF Evaporates easily.
Cadmium Sulfide CdS 4.82 1750 S 1.02 - - 550 Fair - W, Mo, Ta - W Al2O3, Q RF Sticking coefficient affected by substrate.
Cadmium Telluride CdTe 5.85 1092 - 0.98 - - 450 - - W, Mo, Ta W W, Ta, Mo - RF Stoichiometry depends on substrate temp. n~2.6.
Calcium Ca 1.54 839 S 2.62 272 357 459 Poor - W W W Al2O3, Q - Corrodes in air.
Calcium Fluoride CaF2 3.18 1423 - 0.775 - - ≈1100 - - W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta Q RF Rate control important. Preheat gently to outgas.
Calcium Oxide CaO ~3.3 2614 - - - - ≈1700 - - W, Mo - - ZrO2 RF-R Forms volatile oxides with W/Mo.
Calcium Silicate CaSiO3 2.91 1540 - - - - - Good - - - - Q RF -
Calcium Sulfide CaS 2.5 2525 D - - - 1100 - - Mo - - - RF Decomposes.
Calcium Titanate CaTiO3 4.1 1975 - - 1490 1600 1690 Poor - - - - - RF Disproportionates except in sputtering.
Calcium Tungstate CaWO4 6.06 1200 - - - - - Good - W - - - RF -
Carbon C 1.8–2.1 ≈3652 S 3.26 1657 1867 2137 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite - - - - PDC E-beam preferred. Arc evaporation. Poor film adhesion.
Cerium Ce ~6.70 798 - **1.00 970 1150 1380 Good - W, Ta W W, Ta Al2O3 DC, RF -
Cerium (III) Oxide Ce2O3 6.86 1692 - - - - - Fair - W - - - - Alloys with source. Use 0.015"–0.020" W boat.
Cerium (IV) Oxide CeO2 7.13 ≈2600 - **1.00 1890 2000 2310 Good Tantalum, Graphite, Fabmate® W - - - RF, RF-R Very little decomposition.
Cerium Fluoride CeF3 6.16 1460 - **1.00 - - ≈900 Good Tungsten, Tantalum, Molybdenum W, Mo, Ta - Mo, Ta - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n~1.7.
Cesium Cs 1.88 28 - - -16 22 80 - - - - - Q - -
Cesium Bromide CsBr 3.04 636 - - - - ≈400 - - W - - - RF -
Cesium Chloride CsCl 3.99 645 - - - - ≈500 - - W - - - RF -
Cesium Fluoride CsF 4.12 682 - - - - ≈500 - - W - - - RF -
Cesium Hydroxide CsOH 3.68 272 - - - - 550 - - - - - - - -
Cesium Iodide CsI 4.51 626 - - - - ≈500 - - W - - Q RF -
Chiolite Na5Al3F14 2.9 735 - - - - ≈800 - - Mo, W - - - RF -
Chromium Cr 7.2 1,857 S 0.305 837 977 1157 Good Fabmate®, Graphite, Tungsten Cr Plated W Rods W W VitC DC Films very adherent. High rates possible.
Chromium Boride CrB 6.17 1950-2050 - - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Chromium (II) Bromide CrBr2 4.36 842 - - - - 550 - - - - - - RF -
Chromium Carbide Cr3C2 6.68 1895 - - - - ≈2000 Fair - W - - - RF -
Chromium Chloride CrCl2 2.88 824 - - - - 550 - - Fe - - - RF -
Chromium Oxide Cr2O3 5.21 2266 - **1.00 - - ≈2000 Good - W, Mo - W - RF, RF-R Disproportionates to lower oxides; reoxidizes at 600°C in air.
Chromium Silicide CrSi2 5.5 1490 - - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Chromium-Silicon Monoxide Cr-SiO * - S - * * * Good - W - W - RF Flash evaporate.
Cobalt † Co 8.9 1495 - 0.343 850 990 1200 Excellent Direct in Hearth W, Nb - W Al2O3 DC Alloys with W/Ta/Mo.
Cobalt Bromide CoBr2 4.91 678 D - - - 400 - - - - - - RF -
Cobalt Chloride CoCl2 3.36 724 D - - - 472 - - - - - - RF -
Cobalt Oxide CoO 6.45 1795 - 0.412 - - - - - - - - - DC-R, RF-R Sputtering preferred.
Copper Cu 8.92 1083 - 0.437 727 857 1017 Excellent Graphite, Molybdenum Mo W W Al2O3, Mo, Ta DC Adhesion poor. Use interlayer (Cr). Evaporates using any source material.
Copper Chloride CuCl 4.14 430 - - - - ≈600 - - - - - - RF -
Copper Oxide Cu2O 6 1235 S **1.00 - - ≈600 Good Graphite, Fabmate®, Tantalum Ta - - Al2O3 DC-R, RF-R -
Copper Sulfide Cu2S 5.6 1100 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Cryolite Na3AlF6 2.9 1 - - 1020 1260 1480 Excellent Fabmate®, Tungsten W, Mo, Ta - W, Mo, Ta VitC RF Large chunks reduce spitting. Little decomposition.
Dysprosium Dy 8.55 1412 - 0.6 625 750 900 Good Direct in Hearth Ta - - - DC -
Dysprosium Fluoride DyF3 - 1360 S - - - ≈800 Good - Ta - - - RF -
Dysprosium Oxide Dy2O3 7.81 2340 - - - - ≈1,400 - - - - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Erbium Er 9.07 1529 S 0.74 650 775 930 Good Tungsten, Tantalum W, Ta - - - DC -
Erbium Fluoride ErF3 7.82 1350 - - - - ≈750 - - Mo - - - RF See JVST. 1985; A3(6):2320.
Erbium Oxide Er2O3 8.64 2350 - **1.00 - - ≈1600 - - - - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Europium Eu 5.24 822 S **1.00 280 360 480 Fair - W, Ta - - Al2O3 DC Low Ta solubility.
Europium Fluoride EuF2 6.5 1380 - - - - ≈950 - - Mo - - - RF -
Europium Oxide Eu2O3 7.42 2350 - - - - ≈1600 Good - Ta, W - - ThO2 RF, RF-R Loses oxygen. Films clear and hard.
Europium Sulfide EuS 5.75 - - - - - - Good - - - - - RF -
Gadolinium † Gd 7.9 1313 - 0.67 760 900 1175 Excellent Direct in Hearth Ta - - Al2O3 DC High Ta solubility
Gadolinium Carbide GdC2 - - - - - - 1500 - - - - - C RF Decomposes under sputtering.
Gadolinium Oxide Gd2O3 7.41 2330 - - - - - Fair - - - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Gallium Ga 5.9 30 - - 619 742 907 Good Fabmate® - - - Al2O3, Q - Alloys with W/Ta/Mo. Use E-beam gun. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Gallium Antimonide GaSb 5.6 710 - - - - - Fair - W, Ta - - - RF Flash evaporate.
Gallium Arsenide GaAs 5.3 1238 - - - - - Good Graphite, Fabmate® W, Ta - - C RF Flash evaporate.
Gallium Nitride GaN 6.1 800 S - - - ≈200 - - - - - Al2O3 RF, RF-R Evaporate Ga in 10-3 Torr N2.
Gallium Oxide Ga2O3 6.44 1900 - - - - - - - W - - - RF Loses oxygen.
Gallium Phosphide GaP 4.1 1540 - - - 770 920 - - W, Ta - W Q RF Does not decompose. Rate control important.
Germanium Ge 5.35 937 - 0.516 812 957 1167 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite W, C, Ta - - Q, Al2O3 DC Excellent films from E-beam.
Germanium (II) Oxide GeO - 700 S - - - 500 - - - - - Q RF -
Germanium (III) Oxide GeO2 6.24 1086 - - - - ≈625 Good Fabmate®, Tantalum, Molybdenum Ta, Mo - W, Mo Q, Al2O3 RF-R Similar to SiO; film predominantly GeO.
Germanium Nitride Ge3N2 5.2 450 S - - - ~650 - - - - - - RF-R Sputtering preferred.
Germanium Telluride GeTe 6.2 725 - - - - 381 - - W, Mo - W Q, Al2O3 RF -
Glass, Schott® 8329 2.2 1,3 - - - - - Excellent - - - - - RF Evaporable alkali glass. Melt in air before evaporating.
Gold Au 19.32 1064 - 0.381 807 947 1132 Excellent Fabmate®, Tungsten W*** Mo*** W - - Al2O3, BN DC Films soft; not very adherent.
Hafnium Hf 13.31 2227 - 0.36 2160 2250 3090 Good - - - - - DC -
Hafnium Boride HfB2 10.5 3250 - - - - - - - - - - - DC, RF -
Hafnium Carbide HfC 12.2 ≈3890 S **1.00 - - ≈2600 - - - - - - RF -
Hafnium Nitride HfN 13.8 3305 - **1.00 - - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Hafnium Oxide HfO2 9.68 2758 - **1.00 - - ≈2500 Fair Direct in Hearth - - - - RF, RF-R Film HfO.
Hafnium Silicide HfSi2 7.2 1750 - - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Holmium Ho 8.8 1474 - 0.58 650 770 950 Good - W, Ta W W - - -
Holmium Fluoride HoF3 7.68 1143 - - - - ≈800 - - - - - Q DC, RF -
Holmium Oxide Ho2O3 8.41 2370 - - - - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Inconel® Ni/Cr/Fe 8.5 1425 - - - - - Good Fabmate®, Tungsten W W W - DC Use fine wire wrapped on W. Low rate required for smooth films.
Indium In 7.3 157 - 0.841 487 597 742 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite, Molybdenum W, Mo - W Gr, Al2O3 DC Wets W and Cu. Use Mo liner. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Indium (I) Oxide In2O 6.99 ≈600 S - - - 650 - - - - - - RF Decomposes under sputtering.
Indium (III) Oxide In2O3 7.18 850 - **1.00 - - ≈1200 Good - W, Pt - - Al2O3 - -
Indium (I) Sulfide In2S 5.87 653 - - - - 650 - - - - - Gr RF -
Indium (II) Sulfide InS 5.18 692 S - - - 650 - - - - - Gr RF -
Indium (III) Sulfide In2S3 4.9 1050 S - - - 850 - - - - - Gr RF Film In2S.
Indium (II) Telluride InTe 6.29 696 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Indium (III) Telluride In2Te3 5.78 667 - - - - - - - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash.
Indium Antimonide InSb 5.8 535 - - - - - - - W - - - RF Decomposes. Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate.
Indium Arsenide InAs 5.7 943 - - 780 870 970 - - W - - - RF -
Indium Nitride InN 7 1200 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Indium Phosphide InP 4.8 1070 - - - 630 730 - - W, Ta - W, Ta Gr RF Deposits are P rich.
Indium Selenide In2Se3 5.67 890 - - - - - - - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash.
Indium Tin Oxide In2O3/SnO290/10 wt % - 1,8 S - - - - - Fabmate®, Graphite - - - - - -
Iridium Ir 22.42 2410 - 0.129 1850 2080 2380 Fair - - - - - DC -
Iron † Fe 7.86 1535 - 0.349 858 998 1180 Excellent Fabmate®‡ W W W Al2O3 DC Attacks W. Films hard, smooth. Preheat gently to outgas.
Iron (II) Oxide FeO 5.7 1369 - - - - - Poor - - - - - RF, RF-R Decomposes; sputtering preferred.
Iron (III) Oxide Fe2O3 5.24 1565 - **1.00 - - - Good - W - W - - Disproportionate to Fe3O4 at 1,530°C.
Iron Bromide 37288 4.64 684 D - - - 561 - - - - - Fe RF -
Iron Chloride FeCl2 3.16 670 S - - - 300 - - - - - Fe RF -
Iron Iodide FeI2 5.32 - - - - - 400 - - - - - Fe RF -
Iron Sulfide FeS 4.74 1193 D - - - - - - - - - Al2O3 RF Decomposes
Kanthal FeCrAl 7.1 - - - - - - - - W W W - DC -
Lanthanum La 6.15 921 - 0.92 990 1212 1388 Excellent Tungsten, Tantalum W, Ta - - Al2O3 RF Films will burn in air if scraped.
Lanthanum Boride LaB6 2.61 2210 D **1.00 - - - Good - - - - - RF -
Lanthanum Bromide LaBr3 5.06 783 - - - - - - - - - Ta - RF Hygroscopic.
Lanthanum Fluoride LaF3 ~6.0 1490 S - - - 900 Good Tantalum, Molybdenum Ta, Mo - Ta - RF No decomposition. n~1.6.
Lanthanum Oxide La2O3 6.51 2307 - **1.00 - - 1400 Good Graphite, Fabmate®, Tungsten W, Ta - - - RF Loses oxygen. n~1.73.
Lead Pb 11.34 328 - 1.13 342 427 497 Excellent Fabmate® W, Mo W W, Ta Al2O3, Q DC -
Lead Bromide PbBr2 6.66 373 - - - - ≈300 - - - - - - - -
Lead Chloride PbCl2 5.85 501 - - - - ≈325 - - - - - Al2O3 RF Little decomposition.
Lead Fluoride PbF2 8.24 855 S - - - ≈400 - - W, Mo - - BeO RF -
Lead Iodide PbI2 6.16 402 - - - - ≈500 - - - - - Q - -
Lead Oxide PbO 9.53 886 - - - - ≈550 - - - - - Q, Al2O3 RF-R No decomposition. n~2.6.
Lead Selenide PbSe 8.1 1065 S - - - ≈500 - - W, Mo - W Gr, Al2O3 RF -
Lead Stannate PbSnO3 8.1 1115 - - 670 780 905 Poor - - - - Al2O3 RF Disproportionates.
Lead Sulfide PbS 7.5 1114 S - - - 500 - - W - W, Mo Q, Al2O3 RF Little decomposition.
Lead Telluride PbTe 8.16 917 - 0.651 780 910 1050 - - Mo, Pt, Ta - - Al2O3, Gr RF Deposits are Ta rich. Sputtering preferred.
Lead Titanate PbTiO3 7.52 - - 1.16 - - - - - Ta - - - RF -
Lithium Li 0.53 181 - 5.9 227 307 407 Good Tantalum Ta - - Al2O3 - Metal reacts quickly in air.
Lithium Bromide LiBr 3.46 550 - - - - ≈500 - - Ni - - - RF -
Lithium Chloride LiCl 2.07 605 - - - - 400 - - Ni - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Lithium Fluoride LiF 2.64 845 - 0.778 875 1020 1180 Good Tantalum, Tungsten, Molybdenum Ni, Ta, Mo, W - - Al2O3 RF Rate control important for optical films. Preheat gently to outgas.
Lithium Iodide LiI 4.08 449 - - - - 400 - - Mo, W - - - RF -
Lithium Niobate LiNbO3 - - - 0.463 - - - - - - - - - - -
Lithium Oxide Li2O 2.01 >1700 - - - - 850 - - - - - - RF -
Lutetium Lu 9.84 1663 - - - - 1300 Excellent Direct in Hearth Ta - - Al2O3 RF, DC -
Lutetium Oxide Lu2O3 9.42 - - - - - 1400 - - - - - - RF Decomposes.
Magnesium Mg 1.74 649 S 1.61 185 247 327 Good Fabmate®, Graphite, Tungsten W, Mo, Ta, Cb W W Al2O3 DC Extremely high rates possible.
Magnesium Aluminate MgAl2O4 3.6 2135 - - - - - Good - - - - - RF Natural spinel.
Magnesium Bromide MgBr2 3.72 700 - - - - ≈450 - - Ni - - - RF Decomposes.
Magnesium Chloride MgCl2 2.32 714 - - - - 400 - - Ni - - - RF Decomposes.
Magnesium Fluoride MgF2 2.9–3.2 1261 - 0.637 - - 1 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite, Molybdenum Mo, Ta - - Al2O3 RF Substrate temp and rate control important. Reacts with W. Mo OK.
Magnesium Iodide MgI2 4.43 <637 D - - - 200 - - - - - - RF -
Magnesium Oxide MgO 3.58 2852 - 0.411 - - 1300 Good Fabmate®, Graphite - - - C, Al2O3 RF, RF-R Evaporates in 10-3Torr O2 for stoichiometry.
Manganese Mn 7.2 1244 S 0.377 507 572 647 Good Tungsten W, Ta, Mo W W Al2O3 DC -
Manganese (II) Oxide MnO 5.37 1945 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Manganese (III) Oxide Mn2O3 4.5 1080 - 0.467 - - - - - - - - - - -
Manganese (IV) Oxide MnO2 5.03 535 - - - - - Poor - W - W - RF-R Loses oxygen at 535°C.
Manganese Bromide MnBr2 4.39 - D - - - 500 - - - - - - RF -
Manganese Chloride MnCl2 2.98 650 - - - - 450 - - - - - - RF -
Manganese Sulfide MnS 3.99 - D - - - 1300 - - Mo - - - RF Decomposes.
Mercury Hg 13.55 ≈39 - - -68 -42 -6 - - - - - - - -
Mercury Sulfide HgS 8.1 584 S - - - 250 - - - - - Al2O3 RF Decomposes.
Molybdenum Mo 10.2 2617 - 0.257 1592 1822 2117 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite - - - - DC Films smooth, hard. Careful degas required.
Molybdenum Boride MoB2 7.12 2100 - - - - - Poor - - - - - RF -
Molybdenum Carbide Mo2C 8.9 2687 - **1.00 - - - Fair - - - - - RF Evaporation of Mo(CO)6 yields Mo2C.
Molybdenum Sulfide MoS2 4.8 1185 - **1.00 - - ≈50 - - - - - - RF -
Molybdenum Oxide MoO3 4.69 795 S **1.00 - - ≈900 - - Mo - Mo Al2O3, BN RF Slight oxygen loss.
Molybdenum Silicide MoSi2 6.31 2050 - **1.00 - - - - - W - - - RF Decomposes.
Neodymium Nd 7.01 1021 - **1.00 731 871 1062 Excellent Tantalum Ta - - Al2O3 DC Low W solubility.
Neodymium Fluoride NdF3 6.5 1410 - - - - ≈900 Good Tungsten, Molybdenum Mo, W - Mo, Ta Al2O3 RF Very little decomposition.
Neodymium Oxide Nd2O3 7.24 ≈1900 - - - - ≈1400 Good Tantalum, Tungsten Ta, W - - ThO2 RF, RF-R Loses oxygen; films clear. E-beam preferred.
Nichrome IV® † Ni/Cr 8.5 1395 - **1.00 847 987 1217 Excellent Fabmate® *** W W, Ta Al2O3 DC Alloys with W/Ta/Mo.
Nickel † Ni 8.9 1453 - 0.331 927 1072 1262 Excellent Fabmate®‡ W*** - - Al2O3 DC Alloys with W/Ta/Mo. Smooth adherent films.
Nickel Bromide NiBr2 5.1 963 S - - - 362 - - - - - - RF -
Nickel Chloride NiCl2 3.55 1001 S - - - 444 - - - - - - RF -
Nickel Oxide NiO 6.67 1984 - **1.00 - - ≈1470 - - - - - Al2O3 RF-R Dissociates on heating.
Nickel/Iron † Ni/Fe - - - **1.00 - - - - Fabmate®‡, - - - - - -
Nimendium † Ni3%Mn 8.8 1425 - - - - - - - - - - - DC -
Niobium Nb 8.57 2468 - 0.492 1728 1977 2287 Excellent Fabmate® - - - - DC Attacks W source.
Niobium (II) Oxide NbO 7.3 - - - - - 1100 - - - - - - RF -
Niobium (III) Oxide Nb2O3 7.5 1780 - - - - - - - W - W - RF, RF-R -
Niobium (V) Oxide Nb2O5 4.47 1485 - **1.00 - - - - - W - W - RF, RF-R -
Niobium Boride NbB2 6.97 2900 - - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Niobium Carbide NbC 7.6 3500 - **1.00 - - - Fair - - - - - RF -
Niobium Nitride NbN 8.4 2573 - **1.00 - - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R Reactive. Evaporates Nb in 10-3 Torr N2.
Niobium Telluride NbTe2 7.6 - - - - - - - - - - - - RF Composition variable.
Niobium-Tin Nb3Sn - - - - - - - Excellent - - - - - DC Co-evaporate from 2 sources.
Osmium Os 22.48 3045 - - 2170 2430 2760 Fair - - - - - DC -
Osmium Oxide Os2O3 - - D - - - - - - - - - - - Deposits Os in 10-3Torr O2.
Palladium Pd 12.02 1554 S 0.357 842 992 1192 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite, Tungsten W*** W W Al2O3 DC Alloys with refractory metals.
Palladium Oxide PdO 9.7 870 - - - - 575 - - - - - Al2O3 RF-R Decomposes.
Parylene C8H8 1.1 300–400 - - - - - - - - - - - - Vapor-depositable plastic.
Permalloy® † Ni/Fe/Mo/Mn 8.7 1395 - **1.00 947 1047 1307 Good Fabmate®‡ W - - Al2O3 DC Film low in Ni.
Phosphorus P 1.82 44.1 - - 327 361 402 - - - - - Al2O3 - Material reacts violently in air.
Phosphorus Nitride P3N5 2.51 - - - - - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Platinum Pt 21.45 1772 - 0.245 1292 1492 1747 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite W W W C DC Alloys with metals. Films soft, poor adhesion.
Platinum Oxide PtO2 10.2 450 - - - - - - - - - - - RF-R E-beam preferred for evaporation.
Plutonium Pu 19.84 641 - - - - - - - W - - - - -
Polonium Po 9.4 254 - - 117 170 244 - - - - - Q - -
Potassium K 0.86 63 - - 23 60 125 - - Mo - - Q - Metal reacts rapidly in air. Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Bromide KBr 2.75 734 - - - - ≈450 - - Ta, Mo - - Q RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Chloride KCl 1.98 770 S - - - 510 Good Tantalum Ta, Ni - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Fluoride KF 2.48 858 - - - - ≈500 - - - - - Q RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Hydroxide KOH 2.04 360 - - - - ≈400 - - - - - - - Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Iodide KI 3.13 681 - - - - ≈500 - - Ta - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Praseodymium Pr 6.77 931 - **1.00 800 950 1150 Good - Ta - - - DC -
Praseodymium Oxide Pr2O3 7.07 - D - - - 1400 Good - - - - ThO2 RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
PTFE PTFE 2.9 330 - - - - - - - W - - - RF Baffled source. Film structure doubtful.
Radium Ra 5 (?) 700 - - 246 320 416 - - - - - - - -
Rhenium Re 20.53 3180 - 0.15 1928 2207 2571 Poor - - - - - DC -
Rhenium Oxide ReO3 ~7 - D - - - - - - - - - - RF Evaporate Re in 10-3 Torr O2.
Rhodium Rh 12.4 1966 - 0.21 1277 1472 1707 Good Fabmate®, Tungsten W W W ThO2, VitC DC E-beam gun preferred.
Rubidium Rb 1.48 39 - - -3 37 111 - - - - - Q - -
Rubidium Chloride RbCl 2.09 718 - - - - ≈550 - - - - - Q RF -
Rubidium Iodide RbI 3.55 647 - - - - ≈400 - - - - - Q RF -
Ruthenium Ru 12.3 2310 - 0.182 1780 1990 2260 Poor - - - - - DC -
Samarium Sm 7.52 1074 - 0.89 373 460 573 Good - Ta - - Al2O3 DC -
Samarium Oxide Sm2O3 8.35 2350 - - - - - Good - - - - ThO2 RF, RF-R Loses oxygen. Films smooth, clear.
Samarium Sulfide Sm2S3 5.73 1900 - - - - - Good - - - - - - -
Scandium Sc 2.99 1541 - 0.91 714 837 1002 Excellent Tungsten, Molybdenum W - - Al2O3 RF Alloys with Ta.
Scandium Oxide Sc2O3 3.86 2300 - - - - ~400 Fair - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Selenium Se 4.81 217 - 0.864 89 125 170 Good Fabmate®, Tungsten, Molybdenum W, Mo W, Mo W, Mo Al2O3 - Bad for vacuum systems. High V.P. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Silicon Si 2.32 1410 - 0.712 992 1147 1337 Fair Fabmate®‡, Tantalum - - - - RF Alloys with W; use heavy W boat. SiO produced.
Silicon (II) Oxide SiO 2.13 >1702 S 0.87 - - 850 Fair Fabmate®, Tungsten, Tantalum Ta W W Ta RF, RF-R For resistance evaporation, use baffle box and low rate.
Silicon (IV) Oxide SiO2 ~2.65 1610 - **1.00 * * 1025* Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite, Tantalum - - - Al2O3 RF Quartz excellent in E-beam.
Silicon (N-type) Si (N-type) 2.32 1410 - 0.712 992 1147 1337 Fair Fabmate®‡, Tantalum - - - - DC, RF -
Silicon (P-type) Si (P-type) 2.32 1410 - 0.712 992 1147 1337 Fair Fabmate®‡, Tantalum - - - - DC, RF -
Silicon Boride SiB6 - - - - - - - Poor - - - - - RF -
Silicon Carbide SiC 3.22 ≈2700 S, D **1.00 - - 1 - - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred.
Silicon Nitride Si3N4 3.44 1900 - **1.00 - - ≈800 - - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Silicon Selenide SiSe - - - - - - 550 - - - - - Q RF -
Silicon Sulfide SiS 1.85 940 S - - - 450 - - - - - Q RF -
Silicon Telluride SiTe2 4.39 - - - - - 550 - - - - - Q RF -
Silver Ag 10.5 962 - 0.529 847 958 1105 Excellent Fabmate®, Tungsten, Molybdenum, Tantalum W Mo Ta, Mo Al2O3, W DC -
Silver Bromide AgBr 6.47 432 D - - - ≈380 - - Ta - - Q RF -
Silver Chloride AgCl 5.56 455 - - - - ≈520 - - Mo - Mo Q RF -
Silver Iodide AgI 6.01 558 - - - - ≈500 - - Ta - - - RF -
Sodium Na 0.97 98 - - 74 124 192 - - Ta - - Q - Preheat gently to outgas. Metal reacts quickly in air.
Sodium Bromide NaBr 3.2 747 - - - - ≈400 - - - - - Q RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Sodium Chloride NaCl 2.17 801 - - - - 530 Good - Ta, W, Mo - - Q RF Copper oven; little decomposition. Preheat gently to outgas.
Sodium Cyanide NaCN - 564 - - - - ≈550 - - - - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Sodium Fluoride NaF 2.56 993 - - - - ≈1000 Good Tungsten, Fabmate® Mo, Ta, W - - BeO RF Preheat gently to outgas. No decomposition.
Sodium Hydroxide NaOH 2.13 318 - - - - ≈470 - - - - - - - Preheat gently to outgas.
Spinel MgAI2O4 8 - - - - - - Good - - - - - RF -
Strontium Sr 2.6 769 - **1.00 239 309 403 Poor - W, Ta, Mo W W VitC RF Wets but does not alloy with W/Ta/Mo. May react in air.
Strontium Chloride SrCl2 3.05 875 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Strontium Fluoride SrF2 4.24 1473 - - - - ≈1000 - - - - - Al2O3 RF -
Strontium Oxide SrO 4.7 2430 S - - - 1500 - - Mo - - Al2O3 RF Reacts with W/Mo.
Strontium Sulfide SrS 3.7 >2000 - - - - - - - Mo - - - RF Decomposes.
Strontium Titanate SrTiO3 - - - 0.31 - - - - - - - - - - -
Sulfur S 2.07 113 - - 13 19 57 Poor - W - W Q - Bad for vacuum systems.
Supermalloy® † Ni/Fe/Mo 8.9 1410 - - - - - Good Fabmate®‡, - - - - DC Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources-Ni/Fe and Mo.
Tantalum Ta 16.6 2996 - 0.262 1960 2240 2590 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite - - - - DC Forms good films.
Tantalum Boride TaB2 11.15 >3000 - - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Tantalum Carbide TaC 13.9 3880 - **1.00 - - ≈2500 - - - - - - RF -
Tantalum Nitride TaN 16.3 3360 - **1.00 - - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R Evaporate Ta in 10-3 Torr N2.
Tantalum Pentoxide Ta2O5 8.2 1872 - 0.3 1550 1780 1920 Good Fabmate®, Tantalum Ta W W VitC RF, RF-R Slight decomposition. Evaporate Ta in 10-3 Torr O2.
Tantalum Sulfide TaS2 - >1300 - - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Technetium Tc 11.5 2200 - - 1570 1800 2090 - - - - - - - -
Tellurium Te 6.25 449 - 0.9 157 207 277 Poor Fabmate® W, Ta W W, Ta Al2O3, Q RF Wets without alloying.
Terbium Tb 8.23 1356 - 0.66 800 950 1150 Excellent Graphite, Fabmate®, Tantalum Ta - - Al2O3 RF -
Terbium Fluoride TbF3 - 1172 - - - - ≈800 - - - - - - RF -
Terbium Oxide Tb2O3 7.87 2387 - - - - 1300 - - - - - - RF Partially decomposes.
Terbium Peroxide Tb4O7 - - D - - - - - - Ta - - - RF Films TbO.
Thallium Tl 11.85 304 - - 280 360 470 Poor Fabmate® W, Ta - W Al2O3, Q DC Wets freely.
Thallium Bromide TlBr 7.56 480 S - - - ≈250 - - Ta - - Q RF -
Thallium Chloride TlCl 7 430 S - - - ≈150 - - Ta - - Q RF -
Thallium Iodide TlI 7.1 440 S - - - ≈250 - - - - - Q RF -
Thallium Oxide Tl2O2 10.19 717 - - - - 350 - - - - - - RF Disproportionates at 850°C to Tl2O.
Thorium Th 11.7 1,75 - - 1430 1660 1925 Excellent Molybdenum, Tantalum, Tungsten W, Ta, Mo W W - - -
Thorium Bromide ThBr4 5.67 610 S - - - - - - Mo - - - - -
Thorium Carbide ThC2 8.96 2655 - - - - ≈2300 - - - - - C RF -
Thorium Fluoride ThF4 6.32 >900 - - - - ≈750 Fair - Mo - W VitC RF -
Thorium Oxide ThO2 9.86 3220 - - - - ≈2100 Good Tungsten - - - - RF, RF-R -
Thorium Oxyfluoride ThOF2 9.1 900 - - - - - - - Mo, Ta - - - - -
Thorium Sulfide ThS2 7.3 1925 - - - - - - - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources.
Thulium Tm 9.32 1545 S - 461 554 680 Good - Ta - - Al2O3 DC -
Thulium Oxide Tm2O3 8.9 - - - - - 1500 - - - - - - RF Decomposes.
Tin Sn 7.28 232 - 0.724 682 807 997 Excellent Fabmate®, Tantalum Mo W W Al2O3 DC Wets Mo low sputter power. Use Ta liner in E-beam guns. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Tin Oxide SnO2 6.95 1630 S **1.00 - - ≈1000 Excellent - W W W Q, Al2O3 RF, RF-R Films from W are oxygen deficient; oxidize in air.
Tin Selenide SnSe 6.18 861 - - - - ≈400 Good - - - - Q RF -
Tin Sulfide SnS 5.22 882 - - - - ≈450 - - - - - Q RF -
Tin Telluride SnTe 6.48 780 D - - - ≈450 - - - - - Q RF -
Titanium Ti 4.5 1660 - 0.628 1067 1235 1453 Excellent Fabmate® W - - TiC DC Alloys with W/Ta/Mo; evolves gas on first heating.
Titanium (II) Oxide TiO 4.93 1750 - **1.00 - - ≈1500 Good Fabmate®, Tantalum W, Mo - - VitC RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Titanium (III) Oxide Ti2O3 4.6 2130 D - - - - Good Fabmate®, Tantalum W - - - RF Decomposes.
Titanium (IV) Oxide TiO2 4.26 1830 - 0.4 - - ≈1300 Fair Fabmate®, Tantalum W, Mo - W - RF, RF-R Suboxide, must be reoxidized to rutile. Ta reduces TiO2 to TiO and Ti.
Titanium Boride TiB2 4.5 2900 - **1.00 - - - Poor - - - - - RF -
Titanium Carbide TiC 4.93 3140 - **1.00 - - ≈2300 - - - - - - RF -
Titanium Nitride TiN 5.22 2930 - **1.00 - - - Good Molybdenum Mo - - - RF, RF-R Sputtering preferred. Decomposes with thermal evaporation.
Tungsten W 19.35 3410 - 0.163 2117 2407 2757 Good Direct in Hearth - - - - DC Forms volatile oxides. Films hard and adherent.
Tungsten Boride WB2 10.77 ≈2900 - - - - - Poor - - - - - RF -
Tungsten Carbide WC 17.15 2860 - 0.151 1480 1720 2120 Excellent Graphite, Fabmate® C - - - RF -
Tungsten Disulfide WS2 7.5 1250 D **1.00 - - - - - - - - - RF -
Tungsten Oxide WO3 7.16 1473 S **1.00 - - 980 Good Tungsten W - - - RF-R Preheat gently to outgas. W reduces oxide slightly.
Tungsten Selenide WSe2 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Tungsten Silicide WSi2 9.4 >900 - **1.00 - - - - - - - - - RF -
Tungsten Telluride WTe2 9.49 - - - - - - - - - - - Q RF -
Uranium U 19.05 1132 - - 1132 1327 1582 Good - Mo, W W W - - Films oxidize.
Uranium (II) Sulfide US 10.87 >2000 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Uranium (III) Oxide U2O3 8.3 1300 D - - - - - - W - W - RF-R Disproportionates at 1,300°C to UO2.
Uranium (IV) Oxide UO2 10.96 2878 - - - - - - - W - W - RF Ta causes decomposition.
Uranium (IV) Sulfide US2 7.96 >1100 - - - - - - - W - - - RF Slight decomposition.
Uranium Carbide UC2 11.28 2350 - - - - 2100 - - - - - C RF Decomposes.
Uranium Fluoride UF4 6.7 960 - - - - 300 - - Ni - - - RF -
Uranium Phosphide UP2 8.57 - - - - - 1200 - - Ta - - - RF Decomposes.
Vanadium V 5.96 1890 - 0.53 1162 1332 1547 Excellent Tungsten W, Mo - - - DC Wets Mo. E-beam-evaporated films preferred.
Vanadium (IV) Oxide VO2 4.34 1967 S - - - ≈575 - - - - - - RF, RF-R Sputtering preferred.
Vanadium (V) Oxide V2O5 3.36 690 D **1.00 - - ≈500 - - - - - Q RF -
Vanadium Boride VB2 5.1 2400 - - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Vanadium Carbide VC 5.77 2810 - **1.00 - - ≈1800 - - - - - - RF -
Vanadium Nitride VN 6.13 2320 - - - - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Vanadium Silicide VSi2 4.42 1700 - - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Ytterbium Yb 6.96 819 S 1.13 520 590 690 Good Tantalum Ta - - - - -
Ytterbium Fluoride YbF3 - 1157 - - - - ≈800 - Tantalum, Molybdenum Mo - - - RF -
Ytterbium Oxide Yb2O3 9.17 2346 S **1.00 - - ≈1500 - - - - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Yttrium Y 4.47 1522 - 0.835 830 973 1157 Excellent Tungsten W, Ta W W Al2O3 RF, DC High Ta solubility.
Yttrium Aluminum Oxide Y3Al5O12 - 1990 - - - - - Good - - W W - RF Films not ferroelectric.
Yttrium Fluoride YF3 4.01 1387 - - - - - - Tantalum, Molybdenum - - - - RF -
Yttrium Oxide Y2O3 5.01 2410 - **1.00 - - ≈2000 Good Fabmate®, Graphite, Tungsten W - - C RF, RF-R Loses oxygen; films smooth and clear.
Zinc Zn 7.14 420 - 0.514 127 177 250 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite, Tungsten Mo, W, Ta W W Al2O3, Q DC Evaporates well under wide range of conditions.
Zinc Antimonide Zn3Sb2 6.33 570 - - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Zinc Bromide ZnBr2 4.2 394 - - - - ≈300 - - W - - C RF Decomposes.
Zinc Fluoride ZnF2 4.95 872 - - - - ≈800 - - Ta - - Q RF -
Zinc Nitride Zn3N2 6.22 - - - - - - - - Mo - - - RF Decomposes.
Zinc Oxide ZnO 5.61 1975 - 0.556 - - ≈1800 Fair - - - - - RF-R -
Zinc Selenide ZnSe 5.42 >1100 - 0.722 - - 660 - Tantalum, Molybdenum Ta, W, Mo W, Mo W, Mo Q RF Preheat gently to outgas. Evaporates well.
Zinc Sulfide ZnS 3.98 1700 S 0.775 - - ≈800 Good Tantalum, Molybdenum Ta, Mo - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas. Films partially decompose. n=2.356.
Zinc Telluride ZnTe 6.34 1239 - 0.77 - - ~600 - - Mo, Ta - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Zirconium Zr 6.49 1852 - 0.6 1477 1702 1987 Excellent - W - - - DC Alloys with W. Films oxidize readily.
Zirconium Boride ZrB2 6.09 ≈3200 - - - - - Good - - - - - RF -
Zirconium Carbide ZrC 6.73 3540 - 0.264 - - ≈2500 - - - - - - RF -
Zirconium Nitride ZrN 7.09 2980 - **1.00 - - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R Reactively evaporate in 10-3Torr N2.
Zirconium Oxide ZrO2 5.89 ≈2700 - **1.00 - - ≈2200 Good Graphite, Tungsten W - - - RF, RF-R Films oxygen deficient, clear and hard.
Zirconium Silicate ZrSiO4 4.56 2550 - - - - - - - - - - -