Materials vacuum deposition techniques table

A  B  C  D  E  G  H  I  K  L  M  N  O  P  R  S  T  U  V  Y  Z
  • E-Beam Evaporation = PVD using electron beam to generate vapor
  • Thermal Evaporation = PVD using electric heater
  • PDC = Pulsed DC (Direct Current) sputtering
  • RF = RF(Radio Frequency) sputtering
  • RF-R = reactive RF (Radio Frequency) sputter
  • DC = DC (Direct Current)  sputtering
  • DC-R = reactive DC (Direct Current) sputtering

 

MaterialSymbolDensity         g/cm3Melting Point (Cº)Sublimes / DecomposeAcoustic Impedance Z RatioTemp.(Cº)  for 10-8 TorrTemp.(Cº) for 10-6 TorrTemp.(Cº) for 10-4 TorrE-Beam PerformaceE-Beam Liner MaterialThermal Evap: BoatThermal Evap. CoilThermal Evap. BasketThermal Evap. CrucibleSputterComments
 10-8 10-62020-04-10 00:00:00E-Beam PerformanceLiner
  Material
BoatCoilBasketCrucible
AluminumAl2.7660-1.086778211010ExcellentFabmate®,
  Intermetallic
--WTiB2-BN, BNDCAlloys W/Mo/Ta.
  Flash evap or use BN crucible.
Aluminum AntimonideAlSb4.31080-----------RF-
Aluminum ArsenideAlAs3.71600----≈1300------RF-
Aluminum BromideAlBr32.6497----≈50--Mo--Gr--
Aluminum CarbideAl4C32.36≈1400D---≈800Fair-----RF-
Aluminum FluorideAlF32.881291S-410490700PoorGraphite,
  Fabmate®
Mo,
  W, Ta
--GrRF-
Aluminum NitrideAlN3.26>2200S**1.00--≈1750Fair-----RF-RDecomposes.
  Reactive evap in 10-3 T N2 with glow discharge.
Aluminum OxideAl2O33.972072-0.336--1550ExcellentFabmate®,
  Tungsten
W-W-RF-RSapphire
  excellent in E-beam; forms smooth, hard films.
Aluminum PhosphideAlP2.422-----------RF-
Aluminum, 1% CopperAl/Cu
  99/1 wt%
2.82640-**1.00---------DCWire feed &
  flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Aluminum, 1% SiliconAl/Si
  99/1 wt %
2.69640-**1.00--1010-----TiB2-BNRF,
  DC
Wire feed &
  flash. Difficult from dual sources.
AntimonySb6.68630S0.768279345425Poor-Mo***
  Ta***
Mo,
  Ta
Mo,
  Ta
BN,
  C, Al2O3
RF,
  DC
Evaporates well.
Antimony OxideSb2O35.2656S---≈300Good----BN,
  Al2O3
RF-RDecomposes on W.
Antimony SelenideSb2Se3-611-------Ta--CRFStoichiometry
  variable.
Antimony SulfideSb2S34.64550----≈200GoodMolybdenum,
  Tantalum
Mo,
  Ta
-Mo,
  Ta
Al2O3-No
  decomposition.
Antimony TellurideSb2Te36.5629-**1.00--600-----CRFDecomposes over
  750°C.
ArsenicAs5.73817S-107150210PoorFabmate®C--Al2O3-Sublimes rapidly
  at low temp.
Arsenic OxideAs2O33.74312-------------
Arsenic SelenideAs2Se34.75~360----------Al2O3,
  Q
RF-
Arsenic SulfideAs2S33.43300----≈400Fair-Mo--Al2O3,
  Q
RF-
Arsenic TellurideAs2Te36.5362-------Flash----See JVST. 1973,
  10:748
BariumBa3.51725-2.1545627735Fair-W,
  Ta, Mo
WWMetalsRFWets without
  alloying, reacts with ceramics.
Barium ChlorideBaCl23.92963----≈650--Ta,
  Mo
---RFPreheat gently
  to outgas.
Barium FluorideBaF24.890.355S0.793--≈700GoodMolybdenumMo---RF-
Barium OxideBaO5.721918----≈1300Poor----Al2O3RF,
  RF-R
Decomposes
  slightly.
Barium SulfideBaS4.251200----1.1--Mo---RF-
Barium TitanateBaTiO36.021625D0.464---------RFGives Ba.
  Co-evap and Sputter OK.
BerylliumBe1.851278--7108781ExcellentGraphite,
  Fabmate®
W,
  Ta
WWCDCWets W/Mo/Ta.
  Evaporates easily
Beryllium CarbideBe2C1.9>2100D------------
Beryllium ChlorideBeCl21.9405----≈150------RF-
Beryllium FluorideBeF21.99800S---≈200Good-------
Beryllium OxideBeO3.012530----1900Good---W-RF,
  RF-R
No decomposition
  from E-beam guns.
BismuthBi9.8271-0.79330410520ExcellentFabmate®,
  Graphite
W,
  Mo, Ta
WWAl2O3DCResistivity
  high. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Bismuth FluorideBiF35.32727S---≈300-----GrRF-
Bismuth OxideBi2O38.55860-**1.00--≈1400Poor-----RF,
  RF-R
-
Bismuth SelenideBi2Se36.82710D**1.00--≈650Good----Gr,
  Q
RFCo-evap from 2
  sources or sputter.
Bismuth SulfideBi2S37.39685D----------RF-
Bismuth TellurideBi2Te37.7573-**1.00--≈600--W,
  Mo
--Gr,
  Q
RFCo-evap from 2
  sources or sputter.
Bismuth TitanateBi2Ti2O7-870D----------RFSputter or
  co-evap from 2 sources in 10-2 Torr O2.
BoronB2.342079-0.3891.2781.5481797ExcellentFabmate®,
  Graphite
C--CRFExplodes with
  rapid cooling. Forms carbide with container.
Boron CarbideB4C2.522350-**1.002.52.582650ExcellentFabmate®,
  Graphite
----RFSimilar to
  chromium.
Boron NitrideBN2.253000S---1600Poor-----RF,
  RF-R
Decomposes when
  sputtered. Reactive preferred.
Boron OxideB2O31.81≈450----≈1400GoodMolybdenumMo-----
Boron SulfideB2S31.55310----800-----GrRF-
CadmiumCd8.64321-0.68264120180Poor-W,
  Mo, Ta
-W,
  Mo, Ta
Al2O3,
  Q
DC,
  RF
Bad for vacuum
  systems. Low sticking coefficient.
Cadmium AntimonideCd3Sb26.92456-------------
Cadmium ArsenideCd3As26.21721----------QRF-
Cadmium BromideCdBr25.19567----≈300--------
Cadmium ChlorideCdCl24.05568----≈400--------
Cadmium FluorideCdF26.641.1----≈500------RF-
Cadmium IodideCdI25.67387----≈250--------
Cadmium OxideCdO6.95>1500D---≈530------RF-RDisproportionates.
Cadmium SelenideCdSe5.81>1350S**1.00--540GoodMolybdenum,
  Tantalum
Mo,
  Ta
--Al2O3,
  Q
RFEvaporates
  easily.
Cadmium SulfideCdS4.821750S1.02--550Fair-W,
  Mo, Ta
-WAl2O3,
  Q
RFSticking
  coefficient affected by substrate.
Cadmium TellurideCdTe5.851092-0.98--450--W,
  Mo, Ta
WW,
  Ta, Mo
-RFStoichiometry
  depends on substrate temp. n~2.6.
CalciumCa1.54839S2.62272357459Poor-WWWAl2O3,
  Q
-Corrodes in air.
Calcium FluorideCaF23.181423-0.775--≈1100--W,
  Mo, Ta
W,
  Mo, Ta
W,
  Mo, Ta
QRFRate control
  important. Preheat gently to outgas.
Calcium OxideCaO~3.32614----≈1700--W,
  Mo
--ZrO2RF-RForms volatile
  oxides with W/Mo.
Calcium SilicateCaSiO32.911540-----Good----QRF-
Calcium SulfideCaS2.52525D---1100--Mo---RFDecomposes.
Calcium TitanateCaTiO34.11975--149016001690Poor-----RFDisproportionates
  except in sputtering.
Calcium TungstateCaWO46.061200-----Good-W---RF-
CarbonC1.8–2.1≈3652S3.26165718672137ExcellentFabmate®,
  Graphite
----PDCE-beam
  preferred. Arc evaporation. Poor film adhesion.
CeriumCe~6.70798-**1.0097011501380Good-W,
  Ta
WW,
  Ta
Al2O3DC,
  RF
-
Cerium (III) OxideCe2O36.861692-----Fair-W----Alloys with
  source. Use 0.015"–0.020" W boat.
Cerium (IV) OxideCeO27.13≈2600-**1.00189020002310GoodTantalum,
  Graphite, Fabmate®
W---RF,
  RF-R
Very little
  decomposition.
Cerium FluorideCeF36.161460-**1.00--≈900GoodTungsten,
  Tantalum, Molybdenum
W,
  Mo, Ta
-Mo,
  Ta
-RFPreheat gently
  to outgas. n~1.7.
CesiumCs1.8828---162280-----Q--
Cesium BromideCsBr3.04636----≈400--W---RF-
Cesium ChlorideCsCl3.99645----≈500--W---RF-
Cesium FluorideCsF4.12682----≈500--W---RF-
Cesium HydroxideCsOH3.68272----550--------
Cesium IodideCsI4.51626----≈500--W--QRF-
ChioliteNa5Al3F142.9735----≈800--Mo,
  W
---RF-
ChromiumCr7.21.857S0.3058379771157GoodFabmate®,
  Graphite, Tungsten
Cr
  Plated W Rods
WWVitCDCFilms very
  adherent. High rates possible.
Chromium BorideCrB6.171950-2050-----------RF-
Chromium (II) BromideCrBr24.36842----550------RF-
Chromium CarbideCr3C26.681895----≈2000Fair-W---RF-
Chromium ChlorideCrCl22.88824----550--Fe---RF-
Chromium OxideCr2O35.212266-**1.00--≈2000Good-W,
  Mo
-W-RF,
  RF-R
Disproportionates
  to lower oxides; reoxidizes at 600°C in air.
Chromium SilicideCrSi25.51490-----------RF-
Chromium-Silicon MonoxideCr-SiO*-S-***Good-W-W-RFFlash evaporate.
Cobalt †Co8.91495-0.3438509901200ExcellentDirect
  in Hearth
W,
  Nb
-WAl2O3DCAlloys with
  W/Ta/Mo.
Cobalt BromideCoBr24.91678D---400------RF-
Cobalt ChlorideCoCl23.36724D---472------RF-
Cobalt OxideCoO6.451795-0.412---------DC-R,
  RF-R
Sputtering
  preferred.
CopperCu8.921083-0.4377278571017ExcellentGraphite,
  Molybdenum
MoWWAl2O3,
  Mo, Ta
DCAdhesion poor.
  Use interlayer (Cr). Evaporates using any source material.
Copper ChlorideCuCl4.14430----≈600------RF-
Copper OxideCu2O61235S**1.00--≈600GoodGraphite,
  Fabmate®, Tantalum
Ta--Al2O3DC-R,
  RF-R
-
Copper SulfideCu2S5.61100-------------
CryoliteNa3AlF62.91--102012601480ExcellentFabmate®,
  Tungsten
W,
  Mo, Ta
-W,
  Mo, Ta
VitCRFLarge chunks
  reduce spitting. Little decomposition.
DysprosiumDy8.551412-0.6625750900GoodDirect
  in Hearth
Ta---DC-
Dysprosium FluorideDyF3-1360S---≈800Good-Ta---RF-
Dysprosium OxideDy2O37.812340----≈1,400------RF,
  RF-R
Loses oxygen.
ErbiumEr9.071529S0.74650775930GoodTungsten,
  Tantalum
W,
  Ta
---DC-
Erbium FluorideErF37.821350----≈750--Mo---RFSee JVST. 1985;
  A3(6):2320.
Erbium OxideEr2O38.642350-**1.00--≈1600------RF,
  RF-R
Loses oxygen.
EuropiumEu5.24822S**1.00280360480Fair-W,
  Ta
--Al2O3DCLow Ta
  solubility.
Europium FluorideEuF26.51380----≈950--Mo---RF-
Europium OxideEu2O37.422350----≈1600Good-Ta,
  W
--ThO2RF,
  RF-R
Loses oxygen.
  Films clear and hard.
Europium SulfideEuS5.75------Good-----RF-
Gadolinium †Gd7.91313-0.677609001175ExcellentDirect
  in Hearth
Ta--Al2O3DCHigh Ta
  solubility
Gadolinium CarbideGdC2------1500-----CRFDecomposes under
  sputtering.
Gadolinium OxideGd2O37.412330-----Fair-----RF,
  RF-R
Loses oxygen.
GalliumGa5.930--619742907GoodFabmate®---Al2O3,
  Q
-Alloys with
  W/Ta/Mo. Use E-beam gun. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for
  sputtering.
Gallium AntimonideGaSb5.6710-----Fair-W,
  Ta
---RFFlash evaporate.
Gallium ArsenideGaAs5.31238-----GoodGraphite,
  Fabmate®
W,
  Ta
--CRFFlash evaporate.
Gallium NitrideGaN6.1800S---≈200-----Al2O3RF,
  RF-R
Evaporate Ga in
  10-3 Torr N2.
Gallium OxideGa2O36.441900-------W---RFLoses oxygen.
Gallium PhosphideGaP4.11540---770920--W,
  Ta
-WQRFDoes not
  decompose. Rate control important.
GermaniumGe5.35937-0.5168129571167ExcellentFabmate®,
  Graphite
W,
  C, Ta
--Q,
  Al2O3
DCExcellent films
  from E-beam.
Germanium (II) OxideGeO-700S---500-----QRF-
Germanium (III) OxideGeO26.241086----≈625GoodFabmate®,
  Tantalum, Molybdenum
Ta,
  Mo
-W,
  Mo
Q,
  Al2O3
RF-RSimilar to SiO;
  film predominantly GeO.
Germanium NitrideGe3N25.2450S---~650------RF-RSputtering
  preferred.
Germanium TellurideGeTe6.2725----381--W,
  Mo
-WQ,
  Al2O3
RF-
Glass, Schott® 83292.21.3-----Excellent-----RFEvaporable
  alkali glass. Melt in air before evaporating.
GoldAu19.321064-0.3818079471132ExcellentFabmate®,
  Tungsten
W***
  Mo*** W
--Al2O3,
  BN
DCFilms soft; not
  very adherent.
HafniumHf13.312227-0.36216022503090Good-----DC-
Hafnium BorideHfB210.53250-----------DC,
  RF
-
Hafnium CarbideHfC12.2≈3890S**1.00--≈2600------RF-
Hafnium NitrideHfN13.83305-**1.00---------RF,
  RF-R
-
Hafnium OxideHfO29.682758-**1.00--≈2500FairDirect
  in Hearth
----RF,
  RF-R
Film HfO.
Hafnium SilicideHfSi27.21750-----------RF-
HolmiumHo8.81474-0.58650770950Good-W,
  Ta
WW---
Holmium FluorideHoF37.681143----≈800-----QDC,
  RF
-
Holmium OxideHo2O38.412370-----------RF,
  RF-R
Loses oxygen.
Inconel®Ni/Cr/Fe8.51425-----GoodFabmate®,
  Tungsten
WWW-DCUse fine wire
  wrapped on W. Low rate required for smooth films.
IndiumIn7.3157-0.841487597742ExcellentFabmate®,
  Graphite, Molybdenum
W,
  Mo
-WGr,
  Al2O3
DCWets W and Cu.
  Use Mo liner. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Indium (I) OxideIn2O6.99≈600S---650------RFDecomposes under
  sputtering.
Indium (III) OxideIn2O37.18850-**1.00--≈1200Good-W,
  Pt
--Al2O3--
Indium (I) SulfideIn2S5.87653----650-----GrRF-
Indium (II) SulfideInS5.18692S---650-----GrRF-
Indium (III) SulfideIn2S34.91050S---850-----GrRFFilm In2S.
Indium (II) TellurideInTe6.29696-------------
Indium (III) TellurideIn2Te35.78667-----------RFSputtering
  preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash.
Indium AntimonideInSb5.8535-------W---RFDecomposes.
  Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate.
Indium ArsenideInAs5.7943--780870970--W---RF-
Indium NitrideInN71200-------------
Indium PhosphideInP4.81070---630730--W,
  Ta
-W,
  Ta
GrRFDeposits are P
  rich.
Indium SelenideIn2Se35.67890-----------RFSputtering
  preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash.
Indium Tin OxideIn2O3/SnO290/10
  wt %
-1.8S-----Fabmate®,
  Graphite
------
IridiumIr22.422410-0.129185020802380Fair-----DC-
Iron †Fe7.861535-0.3498589981180ExcellentFabmate®‡WWWAl2O3DCAttacks W. Films
  hard, smooth. Preheat gently to outgas.
Iron (II) OxideFeO5.71369-----Poor-----RF,
  RF-R
Decomposes;
  sputtering preferred.
Iron (III) OxideFe2O35.241565-**1.00---Good-W-W--Disproportionate
  to Fe3O4 at 1,530°C.
Iron Bromide372884.64684D---561-----FeRF-
Iron ChlorideFeCl23.16670S---300-----FeRF-
Iron IodideFeI25.32-----400-----FeRF-
Iron SulfideFeS4.741193D---------Al2O3RFDecomposes
KanthalFeCrAl7.1--------WWW-DC-
LanthanumLa6.15921-0.9299012121388ExcellentTungsten,
  Tantalum
W,
  Ta
--Al2O3RFFilms will burn
  in air if scraped.
Lanthanum BorideLaB62.612210D**1.00---Good-----RF-
Lanthanum BromideLaBr35.06783---------Ta-RFHygroscopic.
Lanthanum FluorideLaF3~6.01490S---900GoodTantalum,
  Molybdenum
Ta,
  Mo
-Ta-RFNo
  decomposition. n~1.6.
Lanthanum OxideLa2O36.512307-**1.00--1400GoodGraphite,
  Fabmate®, Tungsten
W,
  Ta
---RFLoses oxygen.
  n~1.73.
LeadPb11.34328-1.13342427497ExcellentFabmate®W,
  Mo
WW,
  Ta
Al2O3,
  Q
DC-
Lead BromidePbBr26.66373----≈300--------
Lead ChloridePbCl25.85501----≈325-----Al2O3RFLittle
  decomposition.
Lead FluoridePbF28.24855S---≈400--W,
  Mo
--BeORF-
Lead IodidePbI26.16402----≈500-----Q--
Lead OxidePbO9.53886----≈550-----Q,
  Al2O3
RF-RNo
  decomposition. n~2.6.
Lead SelenidePbSe8.11065S---≈500--W,
  Mo
-WGr,
  Al2O3
RF-
Lead StannatePbSnO38.11115--670780905Poor----Al2O3RFDisproportionates.
Lead SulfidePbS7.51114S---500--W-W,
  Mo
Q,
  Al2O3
RFLittle
  decomposition.
Lead TelluridePbTe8.16917-0.6517809101050--Mo,
  Pt, Ta
--Al2O3,
  Gr
RFDeposits are Ta
  rich. Sputtering preferred.
Lead TitanatePbTiO37.52--1.16-----Ta---RF-
LithiumLi0.53181-5.9227307407GoodTantalumTa--Al2O3-Metal reacts
  quickly in air.
Lithium BromideLiBr3.46550----≈500--Ni---RF-
Lithium ChlorideLiCl2.07605----400--Ni---RFPreheat gently
  to outgas.
Lithium FluorideLiF2.64845-0.77887510201180GoodTantalum,
  Tungsten, Molybdenum
Ni,
  Ta, Mo, W
--Al2O3RFRate control
  important for optical films. Preheat gently to outgas.
Lithium IodideLiI4.08449----400--Mo,
  W
---RF-
Lithium NiobateLiNbO3---0.463-----------
Lithium OxideLi2O2.01>1700----850------RF-
LutetiumLu9.841663----1300ExcellentDirect
  in Hearth
Ta--Al2O3RF,
  DC
-
Lutetium OxideLu2O39.42-----1400------RFDecomposes.
MagnesiumMg1.74649S1.61185247327GoodFabmate®,
  Graphite, Tungsten
W,
  Mo, Ta, Cb
WWAl2O3DCExtremely high
  rates possible.
Magnesium AluminateMgAl2O43.62135-----Good-----RFNatural spinel.
Magnesium BromideMgBr23.72700----≈450--Ni---RFDecomposes.
Magnesium ChlorideMgCl22.32714----400--Ni---RFDecomposes.
Magnesium FluorideMgF22.9–3.21261-0.637--1ExcellentFabmate®,
  Graphite, Molybdenum
Mo,
  Ta
--Al2O3RFSubstrate temp
  and rate control important. Reacts with W. Mo OK.
Magnesium IodideMgI24.43<637D---200------RF-
Magnesium OxideMgO3.582852-0.411--1300GoodFabmate®,
  Graphite
---C,
  Al2O3
RF,
  RF-R
Evaporates in
  10-3Torr O2 for stoichiometry.
ManganeseMn7.21244S0.377507572647GoodTungstenW,
  Ta, Mo
WWAl2O3DC-
Manganese (II) OxideMnO5.371945-------------
Manganese (III) OxideMn2O34.51080-0.467-----------
Manganese (IV) OxideMnO25.03535-----Poor-W-W-RF-RLoses oxygen at
  535°C.
Manganese BromideMnBr24.39-D---500------RF-
Manganese ChlorideMnCl22.98650----450------RF-
Manganese SulfideMnS3.99-D---1300--Mo---RFDecomposes.
MercuryHg13.55≈39---68-42-6--------
Mercury SulfideHgS8.1584S---250-----Al2O3RFDecomposes.
MolybdenumMo10.22617-0.257159218222117ExcellentFabmate®,
  Graphite
----DCFilms smooth,
  hard. Careful degas required.
Molybdenum BorideMoB27.122100-----Poor-----RF-
Molybdenum CarbideMo2C8.92687-**1.00---Fair-----RFEvaporation of
  Mo(CO)6 yields Mo2C.
Molybdenum SulfideMoS24.81185-**1.00--≈50------RF-
Molybdenum OxideMoO34.69795S**1.00--≈900--Mo-MoAl2O3,
  BN
RFSlight oxygen
  loss.
Molybdenum SilicideMoSi26.312050-**1.00-----W---RFDecomposes.
NeodymiumNd7.011021-**1.007318711062ExcellentTantalumTa--Al2O3DCLow W
  solubility.
Neodymium FluorideNdF36.51410----≈900GoodTungsten,
  Molybdenum
Mo,
  W
-Mo,
  Ta
Al2O3RFVery little
  decomposition.
Neodymium OxideNd2O37.24≈1900----≈1400GoodTantalum,
  Tungsten
Ta,
  W
--ThO2RF,
  RF-R
Loses oxygen;
  films clear. E-beam preferred.
Nichrome IV® †Ni/Cr8.51395-**1.008479871217ExcellentFabmate®***WW,
  Ta
Al2O3DCAlloys with
  W/Ta/Mo.
Nickel †Ni8.91453-0.33192710721262ExcellentFabmate®‡W***--Al2O3DCAlloys with
  W/Ta/Mo. Smooth adherent films.
Nickel BromideNiBr25.1963S---362------RF-
Nickel ChlorideNiCl23.551001S---444------RF-
Nickel OxideNiO6.671984-**1.00--≈1470-----Al2O3RF-RDissociates on
  heating.
Nickel/Iron †Ni/Fe---**1.00----Fabmate®‡,------
Nimendium †Ni3%Mn8.81425-----------DC-
NiobiumNb8.572468-0.492172819772287ExcellentFabmate®----DCAttacks W
  source.
Niobium (II) OxideNbO7.3-----1100------RF-
Niobium (III) OxideNb2O37.51780-------W-W-RF,
  RF-R
-
Niobium (V) OxideNb2O54.471485-**1.00-----W-W-RF,
  RF-R
-
Niobium BorideNbB26.972900-----------RF-
Niobium CarbideNbC7.63500-**1.00---Fair-----RF-
Niobium NitrideNbN8.42573-**1.00---------RF,
  RF-R
Reactive.
  Evaporates Nb in 10-3 Torr N2.
Niobium TellurideNbTe27.6------------RFComposition
  variable.
Niobium-TinNb3Sn-------Excellent-----DCCo-evaporate
  from 2 sources.
OsmiumOs22.483045--217024302760Fair-----DC-
Osmium OxideOs2O3--D-----------Deposits Os in
  10-3Torr O2.
PalladiumPd12.021554S0.3578429921192ExcellentFabmate®,
  Graphite, Tungsten
W***WWAl2O3DCAlloys with
  refractory metals.
Palladium OxidePdO9.7870----575-----Al2O3RF-RDecomposes.
ParyleneC8H81.1300–400------------Vapor-depositable
  plastic.
Permalloy® †Ni/Fe/Mo/Mn8.71395-**1.0094710471307GoodFabmate®‡W--Al2O3DCFilm low in Ni.
PhosphorusP1.8244.1--327361402-----Al2O3-Material reacts
  violently in air.
Phosphorus NitrideP3N52.51------------RF,
  RF-R
-
PlatinumPt21.451772-0.245129214921747ExcellentFabmate®,
  Graphite
WWWCDCAlloys with
  metals. Films soft, poor adhesion.
Platinum OxidePtO210.2450-----------RF-RE-beam preferred
  for evaporation.
PlutoniumPu19.84641-------W-----
PoloniumPo9.4254--117170244-----Q--
PotassiumK0.8663--2360125--Mo--Q-Metal reacts
  rapidly in air. Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium BromideKBr2.75734----≈450--Ta,
  Mo
--QRFPreheat gently
  to outgas.
Potassium ChlorideKCl1.98770S---510GoodTantalumTa,
  Ni
---RFPreheat gently
  to outgas.
Potassium FluorideKF2.48858----≈500-----QRFPreheat gently
  to outgas.
Potassium HydroxideKOH2.04360----≈400-------Preheat gently
  to outgas.
Potassium IodideKI3.13681----≈500--Ta---RFPreheat gently
  to outgas.
PraseodymiumPr6.77931-**1.008009501150Good-Ta---DC-
Praseodymium OxidePr2O37.07-D---1400Good----ThO2RF,
  RF-R
Loses oxygen.
PTFEPTFE2.9330-------W---RFBaffled source.
  Film structure doubtful.
RadiumRa5
  (?)
700--246320416--------
RheniumRe20.533180-0.15192822072571Poor-----DC-
Rhenium OxideReO3~7-D----------RFEvaporate Re in
  10-3 Torr O2.
RhodiumRh12.41966-0.21127714721707GoodFabmate®,
  Tungsten
WWWThO2,
  VitC
DCE-beam gun
  preferred.
RubidiumRb1.4839---337111-----Q--
Rubidium ChlorideRbCl2.09718----≈550-----QRF-
Rubidium IodideRbI3.55647----≈400-----QRF-
RutheniumRu12.32310-0.182178019902260Poor-----DC-
SamariumSm7.521074-0.89373460573Good-Ta--Al2O3DC-
Samarium OxideSm2O38.352350-----Good----ThO2RF,
  RF-R
Loses oxygen.
  Films smooth, clear.
Samarium SulfideSm2S35.731900-----Good-------
ScandiumSc2.991541-0.917148371002ExcellentTungsten,
  Molybdenum
W--Al2O3RFAlloys with Ta.
Scandium OxideSc2O33.862300----~400Fair-----RF,
  RF-R
-
SeleniumSe4.81217-0.86489125170GoodFabmate®,
  Tungsten, Molybdenum
W,
  Mo
W,
  Mo
W,
  Mo
Al2O3-Bad for vacuum
  systems. High V.P. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
SiliconSi2.321410-0.71299211471337FairFabmate®‡,
  Tantalum
----RFAlloys with W;
  use heavy W boat. SiO produced.
Silicon (II) OxideSiO2.13>1702S0.87--850FairFabmate®,
  Tungsten, Tantalum
TaWWTaRF,
  RF-R
For resistance
  evaporation, use baffle box and low rate.
Silicon (IV) OxideSiO2~2.651610-**1.00**1025*ExcellentFabmate®,
  Graphite, Tantalum
---Al2O3RFQuartz excellent
  in E-beam.
Silicon (N-type)Si
  (N-type)
2.321410-0.71299211471337FairFabmate®‡,
  Tantalum
----DC,
  RF
-
Silicon (P-type)Si
  (P-type)
2.321410-0.71299211471337FairFabmate®‡,
  Tantalum
----DC,
  RF
-
Silicon BorideSiB6-------Poor-----RF-
Silicon CarbideSiC3.22≈2700S,
  D
**1.00--1------RFSputtering
  preferred.
Silicon NitrideSi3N43.441900-**1.00--≈800------RF,
  RF-R
-
Silicon SelenideSiSe------550-----QRF-
Silicon SulfideSiS1.85940S---450-----QRF-
Silicon TellurideSiTe24.39-----550-----QRF-
SilverAg10.5962-0.5298479581105ExcellentFabmate®,
  Tungsten, Molybdenum, Tantalum
WMoTa,
  Mo
Al2O3,
  W
DC-
Silver BromideAgBr6.47432D---≈380--Ta--QRF-
Silver ChlorideAgCl5.56455----≈520--Mo-MoQRF-
Silver IodideAgI6.01558----≈500--Ta---RF-
SodiumNa0.9798--74124192--Ta--Q-Preheat gently
  to outgas. Metal reacts quickly in air.
Sodium BromideNaBr3.2747----≈400-----QRFPreheat gently
  to outgas.
Sodium ChlorideNaCl2.17801----530Good-Ta,
  W, Mo
--QRFCopper oven;
  little decomposition. Preheat gently to outgas.
Sodium CyanideNaCN-564----≈550------RFPreheat gently
  to outgas.
Sodium FluorideNaF2.56993----≈1000GoodTungsten,
  Fabmate®
Mo,
  Ta, W
--BeORFPreheat gently
  to outgas. No decomposition.
Sodium HydroxideNaOH2.13318----≈470-------Preheat gently
  to outgas.
SpinelMgAI2O48------Good-----RF-
StrontiumSr2.6769-**1.00239309403Poor-W,
  Ta, Mo
WWVitCRFWets but does
  not alloy with W/Ta/Mo. May react in air.
Strontium ChlorideSrCl23.05875-------------
Strontium FluorideSrF24.241473----≈1000-----Al2O3RF-
Strontium OxideSrO4.72430S---1500--Mo--Al2O3RFReacts with
  W/Mo.
Strontium SulfideSrS3.7>2000-------Mo---RFDecomposes.
Strontium TitanateSrTiO3---0.31-----------
SulfurS2.07113--131957Poor-W-WQ-Bad for vacuum
  systems.
Supermalloy® †Ni/Fe/Mo8.91410-----GoodFabmate®‡,----DCSputtering
  preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources-Ni/Fe and Mo.
TantalumTa16.62996-0.262196022402590ExcellentFabmate®,
  Graphite
----DCForms good
  films.
Tantalum BorideTaB211.15>3000-----------RF-
Tantalum CarbideTaC13.93880-**1.00--≈2500------RF-
Tantalum NitrideTaN16.33360-**1.00---------RF,
  RF-R
Evaporate Ta in
  10-3 Torr N2.
Tantalum PentoxideTa2O58.21872-0.3155017801920GoodFabmate®,
  Tantalum
TaWWVitCRF,
  RF-R
Slight
  decomposition. Evaporate Ta in 10-3 Torr O2.
Tantalum SulfideTaS2->1300-----------RF-
TechnetiumTc11.52200--157018002090--------
TelluriumTe6.25449-0.9157207277PoorFabmate®W,
  Ta
WW,
  Ta
Al2O3,
  Q
RFWets without
  alloying.
TerbiumTb8.231356-0.668009501150ExcellentGraphite,
  Fabmate®, Tantalum
Ta--Al2O3RF-
Terbium FluorideTbF3-1172----≈800------RF-
Terbium OxideTb2O37.872387----1300------RFPartially
  decomposes.
Terbium PeroxideTb4O7--D------Ta---RFFilms TbO.
ThalliumTl11.85304--280360470PoorFabmate®W,
  Ta
-WAl2O3,
  Q
DCWets freely.
Thallium BromideTlBr7.56480S---≈250--Ta--QRF-
Thallium ChlorideTlCl7430S---≈150--Ta--QRF-
Thallium IodideTlI7.1440S---≈250-----QRF-
Thallium OxideTl2O210.19717----350------RFDisproportionates
  at 850°C to Tl2O.
ThoriumTh11.71.75--143016601925ExcellentMolybdenum,
  Tantalum, Tungsten
W,
  Ta, Mo
WW---
Thorium BromideThBr45.67610S------Mo-----
Thorium CarbideThC28.962655----≈2300-----CRF-
Thorium FluorideThF46.32>900----≈750Fair-Mo-WVitCRF-
Thorium OxideThO29.863220----≈2100GoodTungsten----RF,
  RF-R
-
Thorium OxyfluorideThOF29.1900-------Mo,
  Ta
-----
Thorium SulfideThS27.31925-----------RFSputtering
  preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources.
ThuliumTm9.321545S-461554680Good-Ta--Al2O3DC-
Thulium OxideTm2O38.9-----1500------RFDecomposes.
TinSn7.28232-0.724682807997ExcellentFabmate®,
  Tantalum
MoWWAl2O3DCWets Mo low
  sputter power. Use Ta liner in E-beam guns. Low Melting Point materials not
  ideal for sputtering.
Tin OxideSnO26.951630S**1.00--≈1000Excellent-WWWQ,
  Al2O3
RF,
  RF-R
Films from W are
  oxygen deficient; oxidize in air.
Tin SelenideSnSe6.18861----≈400Good----QRF-
Tin SulfideSnS5.22882----≈450-----QRF-
Tin TellurideSnTe6.48780D---≈450-----QRF-
TitaniumTi4.51660-0.628106712351453ExcellentFabmate®W--TiCDCAlloys with
  W/Ta/Mo; evolves gas on first heating.
Titanium (II) OxideTiO4.931750-**1.00--≈1500GoodFabmate®,
  Tantalum
W,
  Mo
--VitCRFPreheat gently
  to outgas.
Titanium (III) OxideTi2O34.62130D----GoodFabmate®,
  Tantalum
W---RFDecomposes.
Titanium (IV) OxideTiO24.261830-0.4--≈1300FairFabmate®,
  Tantalum
W,
  Mo
-W-RF,
  RF-R
Suboxide, must
  be reoxidized to rutile. Ta reduces TiO2 to TiO and Ti.
Titanium BorideTiB24.52900-**1.00---Poor-----RF-
Titanium CarbideTiC4.933140-**1.00--≈2300------RF-
Titanium NitrideTiN5.222930-**1.00---GoodMolybdenumMo---RF,
  RF-R
Sputtering
  preferred. Decomposes with thermal evaporation.
TungstenW19.353410-0.163211724072757GoodDirect
  in Hearth
----DCForms volatile
  oxides. Films hard and adherent.
Tungsten BorideWB210.77≈2900-----Poor-----RF-
Tungsten CarbideWC17.152860-0.151148017202120ExcellentGraphite,
  Fabmate®
C---RF-
Tungsten DisulfideWS27.51250D**1.00---------RF-
Tungsten OxideWO37.161473S**1.00--980GoodTungstenW---RF-RPreheat gently
  to outgas. W reduces oxide slightly.
Tungsten SelenideWSe29------------RF-
Tungsten SilicideWSi29.4>900-**1.00---------RF-
Tungsten TellurideWTe29.49-----------QRF-
UraniumU19.051132--113213271582Good-Mo,
  W
WW--Films oxidize.
Uranium (II) SulfideUS10.87>2000-------------
Uranium (III) OxideU2O38.31300D------W-W-RF-RDisproportionates
  at 1,300°C to UO2.
Uranium (IV) OxideUO210.962878-------W-W-RFTa causes
  decomposition.
Uranium (IV) SulfideUS27.96>1100-------W---RFSlight
  decomposition.
Uranium CarbideUC211.282350----2100-----CRFDecomposes.
Uranium FluorideUF46.7960----300--Ni---RF-
Uranium PhosphideUP28.57-----1200--Ta---RFDecomposes.
VanadiumV5.961890-0.53116213321547ExcellentTungstenW,
  Mo
---DCWets Mo.
  E-beam-evaporated films preferred.
Vanadium (IV) OxideVO24.341967S---≈575------RF,
  RF-R
Sputtering
  preferred.
Vanadium (V) OxideV2O53.36690D**1.00--≈500-----QRF-
Vanadium BorideVB25.12400-----------RF-
Vanadium CarbideVC5.772810-**1.00--≈1800------RF-
Vanadium NitrideVN6.132320-----------RF,
  RF-R
-
Vanadium SilicideVSi24.421700-----------RF-
YtterbiumYb6.96819S1.13520590690GoodTantalumTa-----
Ytterbium FluorideYbF3-1157----≈800-Tantalum,
  Molybdenum
Mo---RF-
Ytterbium OxideYb2O39.172346S**1.00--≈1500------RF,
  RF-R
Loses oxygen.
YttriumY4.471522-0.8358309731157ExcellentTungstenW,
  Ta
WWAl2O3RF,
  DC
High Ta
  solubility.
Yttrium Aluminum OxideY3Al5O12-1990-----Good--WW-RFFilms not
  ferroelectric.
Yttrium FluorideYF34.011387------Tantalum,
  Molybdenum
----RF-
Yttrium OxideY2O35.012410-**1.00--≈2000GoodFabmate®,
  Graphite, Tungsten
W--CRF,
  RF-R
Loses oxygen;
  films smooth and clear.
ZincZn7.14420-0.514127177250ExcellentFabmate®,
  Graphite, Tungsten
Mo,
  W, Ta
WWAl2O3,
  Q
DCEvaporates well
  under wide range of conditions.
Zinc AntimonideZn3Sb26.33570-----------RF-
Zinc BromideZnBr24.2394----≈300--W--CRFDecomposes.
Zinc FluorideZnF24.95872----≈800--Ta--QRF-
Zinc NitrideZn3N26.22--------Mo---RFDecomposes.
Zinc OxideZnO5.611975-0.556--≈1800Fair-----RF-R-
Zinc SelenideZnSe5.42>1100-0.722--660-Tantalum,
  Molybdenum
Ta,
  W, Mo
W,
  Mo
W,
  Mo
QRFPreheat gently
  to outgas. Evaporates well.
Zinc SulfideZnS3.981700S0.775--≈800GoodTantalum,
  Molybdenum
Ta,
  Mo
---RFPreheat gently
  to outgas. Films partially decompose. n=2.356.
Zinc TellurideZnTe6.341239-0.77--~600--Mo,
  Ta
---RFPreheat gently
  to outgas.
ZirconiumZr6.491852-0.6147717021987Excellent-W---DCAlloys with W.
  Films oxidize readily.
Zirconium BorideZrB26.09≈3200-----Good-----RF-
Zirconium CarbideZrC6.733540-0.264--≈2500------RF-
Zirconium NitrideZrN7.092980-**1.00---------RF,
  RF-R
Reactively
  evaporate in 10-3Torr N2.
Zirconium OxideZrO25.89≈2700-**1.00--≈2200GoodGraphite,
  Tungsten
W---RF,
  RF-R
Films oxygen
  deficient, clear and hard.
Zirconium SilicateZrSiO44.562550-----------RF-
Zirconium SilicideZrSi24.881700-----------RF-

 

 

Symbols legend Thermal evaporation accessories materials
† : Magnetic material (requires special sputter source) C = carbon
‡:  One run only Gr = graphite
* : Influenced by composition Q = quartz
** :The z-ratio is unknown. Therefore, we recommend using 1.00 or an experimentally VitC = vitreous carbon
determined value. Please click here for instructions on how to determine this value.
***:  All metals alumina coated
S = sublimes D = decomposes
PDC = Pulsed DC sputtering       RF = RF sputtering is effective    RF-R = reactive RF sputter is effective   DC = DC sputtering is effective    DC-R = reactive DC sputtering is effective